M113型车是美国投产的第一种铝合金装甲防护的装甲车辆。该车1956年1月开始研制时，有铝合金装甲的T113和钢装甲的T117两种车型。两车车重几乎相等，前者铝装甲厚31.75mm(1.25英寸)，后者钢装甲厚9.53mm(3/8英寸)，都具有相同的抗弹能力，但铝装甲焊接容易，厚度较大，车体坚固，省去了部分加固结构件，重量较T117型轻6%。后来美国陆军经过评估选择了T113，并进一步发展成为T113E1，1958年制成样车，1960年定型为M113装甲人员输送车。1959年美军签订首批900辆车采购合同，1960年初在食品机械化学公司的圣何塞(SanJose)兵工厂投产并开始装备部队。1962年又与联邦德国陆军签订生产1132辆车的合同。该车在使用中，特别在越南战争中暴露了许多严重缺陷。1960年美国在 T113基础上进行了首次改进，1963年5月将装有柴油机的T113E2定型为M113A1装甲人员输送车，随后制造了10辆预生产型车，1964年9 月该车代替M113正式投入生产。该车是M113系列的标准车型，主要是将75M水冷汽油机(154kW)改为6V-53水冷柴油机(158kW)，简化了后勤供应的燃料品种，并减少了车内着火的危险性；其次是将阿里逊(ision)TX-200-2B液力传动装置改为TX-100-1全自动传动装置，机动性大为提高。
M113系列装甲车是西方国家使用最广泛的军用履带式装甲车，有近50个国家和地区装备。装备1000辆以上的有美国(24000辆)、以色列 (6500辆)、联邦德国(3800辆)、意大利(3500辆)、土耳其(2000辆)、瑞典(1475辆)、沙特(1260辆)和约旦(1220辆)等 8个国家。由美国食品机械化学公司生产和在外国特许生产的车辆总数约75000辆之多。作为美国陆军制式装备，该系列车主要用于协同M60A3坦克作战，但均不具备与M1坦克协同作战的机动性和战斗力。
澳大利亚国防部把为M113提供电子系统的合同给予了美国霍尼韦尔（Honeywell）国际公司德国分公司，这是一项价值847万美元的合同，主要为澳大利亚陆军升级的M113装甲人员输送车提供TALIN500新型惯性导航单元，进而升级该车的导航系统。据悉，TALIN 500惯性导航单元是 M113装甲人员输送车导航系统的重要组成部分。按照计划，预计M113装甲人员输送车将于2007年开始安装TALIN 500惯性导航单元。
德国库卡公司是最多产的炮塔生产商，确切地说，它们生产系列炮塔。库卡公司为德国陆军Weisel装甲战车研制了E-6炮塔，它装有20毫米Mk20 -Rh-202火炮和所有最新库卡炮塔上都使用的Peri-Z16瞄具。库卡公司目前正在研制一种被称作E-8的重型单人炮塔，反映了焊接炮塔设计方面的最新动向，属于低轮廓炮塔，可以安装多种传感器。可供选择的武器装备包括火炮和光学系统稳定装置，以及烟雾榴弹发射器。E-8炮塔可以采用25/30毫米火炮，如30毫米“丛林之王II”。在库卡炮塔系列中重量最大、武器和传感器最多的是E-4，已经在莫瓦格Trojan和德国陆军的"黄鼠狼" （Marder）车上进行过试验。该炮塔重3285千克，装有30毫米毛瑟F机枪，7.55毫米PzMG51/87机枪，Peri-Z16车长瞄具， Mithridat炮长瞄具和5具单个观测潜望镜。
Wednesday, December 5, 2007
A parapet consists of a barrier at the edge of a structure employed to prevent persons or vehicles from falling over the edge.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Posted by h_shila at 10:26 AM
Tuesday, December 4, 2007
Wonju is a city in Gangwon province, South Korea.
Wonju is a city approximately 90 miles east of Seoul. Wonju is home to three major universities which draw many students from Seoul and elsewhere. It was the site of a battle in the Korean War.
Its sister city is Roanoke, Virginia.
Posted by h_shila at 9:14 AM
Monday, December 3, 2007
Super-Kamiokande, or Super-K for short, is a neutrino observatory in Japan. The observatory was designed to search for proton decay, study solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and keep watch for supernovas in the Milky Way Galaxy.
Super-K is located 1,000 m underground in the Mozumi Mine (Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co.) in Hida city (formerly Kamioka town), Gifu, Japan. The detector consists of a cylindrical stainless steel tank 41.4 m tall and 39.3 m in diameter enclosing 50,000 tons of ultra-purified water. The tank volume is divided by a stainless steel superstructure into an inner detector (ID) region that is 33.8 m in diameter and 36.2 m in height and outer detector (OD) which consists of the remaining tank volume. Mounted on the superstructure are 11,146 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) 20 inches in diameter that face the ID and 1885 8-inch PMTs that face the OD. There is a barrier that optically separates the ID and OD.
A neutrino interaction with the electrons or nuclei of water can produce a charged particle that moves faster than the speed of light in water (although of course slower than the speed of light in vacuum). This creates a cone of light known as Cherenkov radiation, which is the optical equivalent to a sonic boom. The Cherenkov light is projected as a ring on the wall of the detector and recorded by the PMTs. Using the timing and charge information recorded by each PMT, the interaction vertex, ring direction and flavor of the incoming neutrino is determined. From the sharpness of the edge of the ring the type of particle can be inferred. The multiple scattering of electrons is large, so electromagnetic showers produce fuzzy rings. Highly relativistic muons, in contrast, travel almost straight through the detector and produce rings with sharp edges.
Construction of Kamioka Underground Observatory, the predecessor of the present Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo began in 1982 and was completed in April, 1983. The purpose of the observatory was to detect whether proton decay exists, one of the most fundamental questions of elementary particle physics.
The detector, named KamiokaNDE for Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment, was a tank 16.0m in height and 15.6m in width, containing 3,000 tons of pure water and about 1,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) attached to its inner surface. The detector was upgraded, starting in 1985, to allow its to observe solar neutrinos. As a result, the detector (KamiokaNDE-II) had become sensitive enough to detect neutrinos from SN 1987A, a supernova which was observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud in February 1987, and to observe solar neutrinos in 1988. The ability of the Kamiokande experiment to observe the direction of electrons produced in solar neutrino interactions allowed experimenters to directly demonstrate for the first time that the sun was a source of neutrinos.
Despite successes in neutrino astronomy and neutrino astrophysics, Kamiokande did not achieve its primary goal, the detection of proton decay. Higher sensitivity was also necessary to obtain high statistical confidence in its results. This led to the construction of Super-Kamiokande, with fifteen times the water and ten times as many PMTs as Kamiokande. Super-Kamiokande started operation in 1996.
The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration announced the first evidence of neutrino oscillation in 1998. This was the first experimental observation consistent with the theory that the neutrino has non-zero mass, a possibility that theorists had speculated about for years.
On November 12, 2001, about 6,600 of the photomultiplier tubes in the Super-Kamiokande detector imploded, apparently in a chain reaction as the shock wave from the concussion of each imploding tube cracked its neighbours. The detector was partially restored by redistributing the photomultiplier tubes which did not implode, and by adding protective acrylic shells that are hoped would prevent another chain reaction from recurring (SuperKamiokande-II).
In July 2005, preparations began to restore the detector to its original form by reinstalling about 6,000 PMTs. It was completed in June 2006. (SuperKamiokande-III)
Posted by h_shila at 8:46 AM
Sunday, December 2, 2007
Edward Morgan Forster, OM (January 1, 1879 – June 7, 1970), was an English novelist, short story writer, and essayist. He is known best for his ironic and well-plotted novels examining class difference and hypocrisy in early 20th-century British society. Forster's humanistic impulse toward understanding and sympathy may be aptly summed up in the epigraph to his 1910 novel Howards End: "Only connect."
Forster was homosexual, but this fact was not made public during his lifetime. His posthumously released novel Maurice, never intended for publication, tells of the coming of age of an explicitly gay male character.
Forster stopped writing novels at the age of 45, and produced little more fiction apart from short stories intended only for himself and a small circle of friends.
In the 1930s and 1940s Forster became a successful broadcaster on BBC Radio and a public figure associated with the British Humanist Association. He was awarded a Benson Medal in 1937.
Forster had a happy personal relationship, beginning in the early 1930s, with Bob Buckingham, a constable in the London Metropolitan Police. He developed a friendship with Buckingham's wife May and included the couple in his circle, which also included the writer and editor of The Listener J.R. Ackerley, the psychologist W.J.H. Sprott, and, for a time, the composer Benjamin Britten. Other writers with whom Forster associated included the poet Siegfried Sassoon and the Belfast-based novelist Forrest Reid.
After the death of his mother, Forster accepted an honorary fellowship at King's College, Cambridge and lived for the most part in the college, doing relatively little. In 1969 he was made a member of the Order of Merit. Forster died in Coventry the following year at the age of 91, at the home of the Buckinghams.
After A Passage to India
Forster had five novels published in his lifetime. Although Maurice appeared shortly after his death, it had been written nearly sixty years earlier. A seventh novel, Arctic Summer, was never finished.
His first novel, Where Angels Fear to Tread (1905), is the story of Lilia, a young English widow who falls in love with an Italian, and of the efforts of her bourgeois relatives to get her back from Monteriano (based on San Gimignano). The mission of Philip Herriton to retrieve her from Italy has features in common with that of Lambert Strether in Henry James's The Ambassadors, a work Forster discussed ironically and somewhat disapprovingly in his book Aspects of the Novel (1927). Where Angels Fear to Tread was adapted into a film by Charles Sturridge in 1991.
Next, Forster published The Longest Journey (1907), an inverted bildungsroman following the lame Rickie Elliott from Cambridge to a career as a struggling writer and then to a post as a schoolmaster, married to the unappetising Agnes Pembroke. In a series of scenes on the hills of Wiltshire which introduce Rickie's wild half-brother Stephen Wonham, Forster attempts a kind of sublime related to those of Thomas Hardy and D.H. Lawrence.
Forster's third novel, A Room with a View (1908) is his lightest and most optimistic. It was started before any of his others, as early as 1901, and exists in earlier forms referred to as "Lucy." The book is the story of young Lucy Honeychurch's trip to Italy with her cousin, and the choice she must make between the free-thinking George Emerson and the repressed aesthete Cecil Vyse. George's father Mr. Emerson quotes thinkers who influenced Forster, including Samuel Butler. A Room with a View was filmed by Merchant-Ivory in 1987.
Where Angels Fear to Tread and A Room with a View can be seen collectively as Forster's Italian novels. Both include references to the famous Baedeker guidebooks and concern narrow-minded middle-class English tourists abroad. The books share many themes with short stories collected in The Celestial Omnibus and The Eternal Moment.
Howards End (1910) is an ambitious "condition-of-England" novel concerned with different groups within the Edwardian middle classes represented by the Schlegels (bohemian intellectuals), the Wilcoxes (thoughtless plutocrats) and the Basts (struggling lower-middle-class aspirants).
It is frequently observed that characters in Forster's novels die suddenly. This is true of Where Angels Fear to Tread, Howards End and, most particularly, The Longest Journey.
Forster achieved his greatest success with A Passage to India (1924). The novel takes as its subject the relationship between East and West, seen through the lens of India in the later days of the British Raj. Forster connects personal relationships with the politics of colonialism through the story of the Englishwoman Adela Quested, the Indian Dr. Aziz, and the question of what did or did not happen between them in the Marabar Caves.
Maurice (1971) was published after the novelist's death. It is a homosexual love story which also returns to matters familiar from Forster's first three novels, such as the suburbs of London in the English home counties, the experience of attending Cambridge, and the wild landscape of Wiltshire. The novel was controversial, given that Forster's sexuality had not been previously known or widely acknowledged. Today's critics continue to argue over the authorship of Maurice and the extent to which Forster's sexuality, even his alleged personal activities, influenced his writing.
Forster's views as a secular humanist are at the heart of his work, which often depicts the pursuit of personal connections in spite of the restrictions of contemporary society. His humanist attitude is expressed in the non-fictional essay What I Believe.
Forster's two best-known works, A Passage to India and Howards End, explore the irreconcilability of class differences. Although considered by some to have less serious literary weight, A Room with a View also shows how questions of propriety and class can make connection difficult. The novel is his most widely read and accessible work, remaining popular long after its original publication. His posthumous novel Maurice explores the possibility of class reconciliation as one facet of a homosexual relationship.
Sexuality is another key theme in Forster's works, and it has been argued that a general shift from heterosexual love to homosexual love can be detected over the course of his writing career. The foreword to Maurice describes his struggle with his own homosexuality, while similar issues are explored in several volumes of homosexually charged short stories. Forster's explicitly homosexual writings, the novel Maurice and the short-story collection The Life to Come, were published shortly after his death.
Forster is noted for his use of symbolism as a technique in his novels, and he has been criticised (as by his friend Roger Fry) for his attachment to mysticism. One example of his symbolism is the Wych Elm tree in Howards End; the characters of Mrs Wilcox in that novel and Mrs Moore in A Passage to India have a mystical link with the past and a striking ability to connect with people from beyond their own circles.
Notable works by Forster
Where Angels Fear to Tread 1905; The Longest Journey 1907; A Room with a View 1908; Howards End 1910; A Passage to India 1924; Maurice (supposedly written in 1913-1914, published posthumously in 1971, attributed to Forster); Arctic Summer 1980 (posthumous, unfinished)
The Celestial Omnibus (and other stories) 1911 · The Eternal Moment and other stories 1928 · Collected Short Stories (1947) (- a combination of the above two titles, containing: "The Story of A Panic" · "The Other Side Of The Hedge" · "The Celestial Omnibus" · "Other Kingdom" · "The Curate's Friend" · "The Road From Colonus" · "The Machine Stops" · "The Point Of It" · "Mr Andrews" · "Co-ordination" · "The Story Of The Siren" · "The Eternal Moment" · The Life to Come and other stories 1972 (posthumous) (containing the following stories written between approximately 1903 and 1960: "Ansell" · "Albergo Empedocle" · "The Purple Envelope" · "The Helping Hand" · "The Rock" · "The Life to Come" · "Dr Woolacott" · "Arthur Snatchfold" · "The Obelisk" · "What Does It Matter? A Morality" · "The Classical Annex" · "The Torque" · "The Other Boat" · "Three Courses and a Dessert: Being a New and Gastronomic Version of the Old Game of Consequences") · "My Wood"
Abinger Pageant 1934 · England's Pleasant Land 1940
Plays and Pageants
A Diary for Timothy 1945 (directed by Humphrey Jennings, spoken by Michael Redgrave)
Billy Budd 1951 (based on Melville's novel, for the opera by Britten)
Abinger Harvest 1936 · Two Cheers for Democracy 1951
Collections of essays and broadcasts
Aspects of the Novel 1927 · The Feminine Note in Literature (posthumous) 2001
Alexandria: A History and Guide 1922 · Pharos and Pharillon (A Novelist's Sketchbook of Alexandria Through the Ages) 1923 · The Hill of Devi 1953
Selected Letters 1983-1985 · Commonplace Book 1985 · Locked Diary forthcoming 2007 (held at King's College, Cambridge)
Notable films based upon novels by Forster
Abrams, M.H. and Stephen Greenblatt, "E.M. Forster." The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Vol. 2C., 7th Edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000: 2131-2140.
Ackerley, J. R., E. M. Forster: A Portrait (Ian McKelvie, London, 1970)
Bakshi, Parminder Kaur, Distant Desire. Homoerotic Codes and the Subversion of the English Novel in E. M. Forster's Fiction (New York, 1996).
Beauman, Nicola, Morgan (London, 1993).
Brander, Lauwrence, E.M. Forster. A critical study (London, 1968).
Cavaliero, Glen, A Reading of E.M. Forster (London, 1979).
Colmer, John, E.M. Forster - The personal voice (London, 1975).
E.M. Forster, ed. by Norman Page, Macmillan Modern Novelists (Houndmills, 1987).
E.M. Forster: The critical heritage, ed. by Philip Gardner (London, 1973).
Forster: A collection of Critical Essays, ed. by Malcolm Bradbury (New Jersey, 1966).
Furbank, P.N., E.M. Forster: A Life (London, 1977-1978).
Haag, Michael, Alexandria: City of Memory (London and New Haven, 2004). This portrait of Alexandria during the first half of the twentieth century includes a biographical account of E.M. Forster, his life in the city, his relationship with Constantine Cavafy, and his influence on Lawrence Durrell.
King, Francis, E.M. Forster and his World, (London, 1978).
Martin, John Sayre, E.M. Forster. The endless journey (London, 1976).
Martin, Robert K. and George Piggford eds., Queer Forster (Chicago, 1997)
Mishra, Pankaj (ed.). "E.M. Forster." India in Mind: An Anthology. New York: Vintage Books, 2005: 61-70.
Scott, P.J.M., E.M. Forster: Our Permanent Contemporary, Critical Studies Series (London, 1984).
Summers, Claude J., E.M. Forster (New York, 1983).
Trilling, Lionel, E. M. Forster: A Study (Norfolk: New Directions, 1943).
Wilde, Alan, Art and Order. A Study of E.M. Forster (New York, 1967).
Posted by h_shila at 8:10 AM
Saturday, December 1, 2007
Lake County is a county located in the state of Florida, United States. As of the 2000 Census, the population was 210,528. With a Census-estimated population of 290,435 in 2006, it is the 23rd fastest-growing county in the United States. Its county seat is Tavares, Florida. Clermont, Florida, located in the southern portion of the county, is the largest city with a population of 22,097, based on 2006 census estimates. Lake County is part of the Orlando-Kissimmee, Florida, Metropolitan Statistical Area.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,995 km² (1,156 mi²). 2,469 km² (953 mi²) of it is land and 526 km² (203 mi²) of it (17.58%) is water.
Volusia County, Florida - northeast
Orange County, Florida - east
Seminole County, Florida - east
Osceola County, Florida - southeast
Polk County, Florida - south
Sumter County, Florida - west
Marion County, Florida - northwest Adjacent Counties
As of the census² of 2000, there were 210,528 people, 88,413 households, and 62,507 families residing in the county. The population density was 85/km² (221/mi²). There were 102,830 housing units at an average density of 42/km² (108/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 87.46% White, 8.31% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.88% from other races, and 1.18% from two or more races. 5.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 88,413 households out of which 23.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.30% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.75.
In the county the population was spread out with 20.30% under the age of 18, 5.80% from 18 to 24, 23.80% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, and 26.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $36,903, and the median income for a family was $42,577. Males had a median income of $31,475 versus $23,545 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,199. About 6.90% of families and 9.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.80% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over.
Town of Astatula
City of Clermont
City of Eustis
City of Fruitland Park
City of Groveland
Town of Howey-in-the-Hills
Town of Lady Lake
City of Leesburg
City of Mascotte
City of Minneola
Town of Montverde
City of Mount Dora
City of Tavares
City of Umatilla Incorporated
Lake Mack-Forest Hills
Government links/Constitutional offices
Lake County School Board
St. Johns River Water Management District
Southwest Florida Water Management District
Posted by h_shila at 7:40 AM
Friday, November 30, 2007
East Garfield Park is a community area located on the west side of Chicago, Illinois, USA. It is part of the Chicago West Side area. After experiencing years of neglect and disinvestment, East Garfield is seeing revitalization with respect to increased property values and some new construction.
Located directly in the path of gentrification heading westward from the loop, East Garfield Park has been named one of America's most "up and coming neighborhoods" in the March 6, 2007 issue of Business Week. Its central location, proximity to downtown, vintage housing stock, and access to two mass transit lines have made this neighborhood attractive to many buyers and investors looking for quick appreciation. Rehabs of vintage buildings and construction of high end luxury condos are seen throughout the area alongside quality affordable housing developments.
East Garfield Park
Posted by h_shila at 10:33 AM